What’s the Deal with Meals?



nestle-purina logo            Versus 2              Blue Buffalo Logo

The Pet Food Wars: In May 2014, Nestlé-Purina, the largest producer of pet foods sold in the U.S., filed a lawsuit against Blue Buffalo, a competitor. Among other things, the lawsuit alleged that Blue Buffalo’s marketing claims—that their foods contained no by-product meals—were false and disparaging to other companies’ products. According to the report of a testing laboratory hired by Nestlé-Purina, at least a few varieties of Blue Buffalo dry extruded foods (kibble) did indeed contain poultry by-product meal, comprising as much as 25 percent of the meal in some of its products. As is the way of the modern pet food industry, within days, Blue Buffalo responded with a countersuit of its own, accusing Nestlé-Purina of defamation, unfair competition and false advertising.

Central to this public (dog) food fight was the belief, strongly promoted by Blue Buffalo, that chicken or poultry meals are of superior nutritional value to by-product meals, and that high-quality dog foods contain the former and reject the latter. (It is of interest to note that Nestlé-Purina sidestepped the nutrient quality issue altogether in their lawsuit. Rather, they contended that Blue Buffalo had falsely promoted itself as being completely transparent to its customers.)


Deny, Deny, Deny: Initially, Blue Buffalo responded to the allegations with denial. Both companies launched public-relations campaigns that included strongly worded letters to consumers. However, in October, Blue Buffalo had to eat crow (meal?) when they announced that one of their suppliers, Texas-based Wilbur-Ellis, had mislabeled an ingredient, which resulted in the presence of poultry by-product meal in some of their foods. In the words of Blue Buffalo’s founder, Bill Bishop: “So, while their customers were ordering and paying for 100 percent chicken meal, at times they were receiving shipments that contained poultry by-product meal. As a result, we have stopped doing business with this plant.

What is the truth? Are by-product meals lower in quality when compared with meals? Should discerning dog owners avoid chicken or poultry by-product meal and choose only foods that contain chicken or poultry meal? And is this a reliable way to distinguish between high-quality dog foods and foods of lesser quality?

Perhaps the best place to start is with an understanding of what a “meal” actually s.

Meals – The Protein Ingredient: Every ingredient that goes into a dog food contains a unique set of essential nutrients that it contributes to the finished food. In commercially prepared dry (extruded) dog foods, various types of meals are used to provide protein. These are classified in several ways.

  1. Plant vs. Animal Source: Examples of commonly used plant-based protein meals are corn gluten meal, soybean meal and pea protein (or meal). In general, plant-based protein sources are an inexpensive source of protein and are found in foods marketed to pet owners interested in economy. The quality of these meals is moderate to low in terms of amino acid balance and digestibility, although several protein sources are used to ensure that all essential amino acid needs are met. Animal-source protein meals, on the other hand, vary tremendously in both source—animal species—and in quality measures such as digestibility, amino acid content and amino acid availability.
  2. Species vs Generic Group: Animal source protein meals may be provided as species-specific meals or as generic animal groups. Examples of species-specific meals are chicken, bison, beef, salmon, venison, turkey and lamb meals. Alternatively, these meals may be classified more largely as poultry (contains varying amounts of chicken, turkey or duck), fish (contains multiple fish species), or meat (contains varying amounts of pork, beef or sheep). When you see a named species as the major protein meal ingredient, it generally indicates that the food is of higher quality (or at least a better-regulated product). Ingredient supply companies are required to keep these ingredient streams separate and designated, which means that sources are not mixed and translates to a more uniform product and greater regulatory oversight. Conversely, the generic term used to describe a group of food animals means that the meal may contain a mixture of species with no guarantee of any particular animal species or proportions in a given product. At the production level, this also means that several ingredient streams are combined, with varying sources of origin, regulatory oversight and quality attributes.
  3. Meals vs. By-Product Meals: The term “by-product” is the designator receiving the most attention. It is important to know that on pet food labels, this term is only applied to chicken and poultry meal. And, the distinction is largely bureaucratic; the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) sets the definitions for ingredient terms and they have not designated a by-product meal term for any other animal protein meal. The closest they’ve come is “meat” meals versus “meat and bone” meals; the latter contains bone, which can reduce its quality as a protein source. (More about the purported differences between chicken/poultry meal and by-product meal later).

Meals are Produced via Rendering: Rendering is a cooking process that converts slaughterhouse products that have been deemed unfit for human consumption into a form that is regulated as acceptable for use in pet foods. Generally, animal parts used for rendering are those not typically consumed in our Western diet: organ meats such as spleen, kidneys, liver; stomach and intestines; varying amounts of bone; and, in the case of poultry, necks, feet and heads. In addition to slaughterhouse waste, “spent” layer hens from the egg industry and food animals found to be too diseased or injured to pass inspection for use as human foods may also end up at the rendering plant. Classified during the slaughter process as “inedible,” these parts are redirected into an alternate supply stream and are handled, transported and processed differently than those intended for human consumption.

The Process: During the rendering process, the combined components are ground, mixed and heated to a high temperature (220° to 270° F), which cooks and sterilizes the mixture, effectively killing the microbes that are present. Sterilization is absolutely necessary because refrigeration is not required for the handling or transport of inedible foods. The resulting slurry is centrifuged at high-speed to remove lipids (fat). The removed fat is further processed and eventually is sold separately as chicken, poultry, or animal fat. The mixture that remains is dried and ground to a uniform particle size that ultimately has the appearance and texture of dry corn meal. Animal protein meals are very low in moisture and contain between 55 and 65 percent protein, making them a rich source of protein when included in a pet food.

Chicken Meal


Why use Protein Meals? From a commercial perspective, meals are well suited for use in dry foods because they can be stored and transported easily, and have the low moisture content necessary for extrusion processing. By comparison, high-moisture protein ingredients, such as “fresh” chicken (or other meat), contribute only small amounts of protein by weight to the end product because the water is cooked off during the extrusion process. These ingredients may be listed first on a food’s ingredient list simply because they contain more than 65 percent water, and ingredients must be listed in predominance by weight at the time of processing. In reality, it is the dried meals, usually found within the first three to five ingredients on the list, that provide the bulk of dietary protein in dry dog foods.

It Aint’ your Grandma’s Roast Chicken: According to AAFCO, the term “meal” refers to the “dry, rendered product from a combination of clean flesh and skin with or without accompanying bone, derived from the parts of whole carcasses of [chicken/poultry], exclusive of feathers, heads, feet and entrails.” (1)  Although this definition seems to suggest that meals are produced from the same parts of the chicken that make it to the supermarket for human consumption, this is simply not true. As mentioned previously, animal protein meals are produced from slaughterhouse waste and other food animals that are deemed “not for human consumption” (i.e., inedible).

In the case of chicken, these waste products are predominantly “chicken frames,” the remainder of the chicken’s body after the parts destined for human consumption have been removed. More than 70 percent of a broiler chicken ends up in the supermarket, leaving about 30 percent in the frame, which is made up of a bit of muscle meat plus a lot of connective tissue and bone.

Chicken Frames


None of the animal protein meals that are used in the production of dry dog foods are produced from edible (human grade) meats. This is because rendering plants are in the business of taking inedible animal parts and converting them into a form that can be fed to non-human animals. Chicken meal comes from chicken frames that are designated as not for human consumption, not from supermarket chicken.

        Chicken Meal          Unequal Sign       Fresh Chicken             

The Deal (with By-Product Meal): By-product meals are composed of exactly the same chicken components found in meals, but by-product meals may also contain varying quantities of heads, feet and viscera (guts). Therefore, the difference between a chicken (or poultry) meal and its respective by-product meal is the inclusion of heads and necks, feet, and guts (viscera) in the latter and the exclusion of those body parts from the former. On the face of it, this appears to be an obvious quality distinction. After all, any product that has heads, feet and guts in it not only sounds yucky, but certainly must also be of poor quality, right?

Well … it depends.

Given this definition, the general (and understandable) perception is that meals will be of higher quality than by-product meals. This is clearly the conclusion that Blue Buffalo and other pet food companies that make “No By-Products!” claims on their labels are banking on. However, consistent and substantial quality differences between the two ingredient types are not reported. The fact is that the inclusion of additional body parts (heads, feet and guts) in by-product meals can reduce, maintain or improve the quality of a meal (2).

Beaks, Feets and Guts, Oh My! These three additional parts, although certainly not very appetizing to most people, have varying nutritional value as food ingredients. First, the protein quality of viscera (internal organs and intestinal contents) is similar to that of chicken flesh components included in very high-quality chicken meals (and to what humans consume in a chicken dinner). In other words, including organ meats and intestinal contents in a by-product meal does not negatively affect the meal’s protein quality and may even improve it in a poor or average quality meal. Second, the inclusion of chicken heads in the mix results in a slight reduction in nutritional quality. This is because chicken brains are highly digestible while chicken skulls, being comprised of bone, are less so. So it appears to be a zero sum game when it comes to the added chicken heads. Last – chicken feet. As a food ingredient that is intended to provide dietary protein, feet are simply bad and have measured quality values similar to feeding connective tissue or bone residue.

Feet Less than symbol Heads  Less than symbol Chicken Guts

       FEET (BAD)                                        HEADS (LESS BAD)                           GUTS (BETTER)

Collectively speaking, including additional body parts in a by-product meal may affect the resultant product’s protein quality either positively or negatively when compared with its corresponding meal. The influence depends largely upon the actual proportion of the three different body parts that are included in the end product: if there are lots of guts, quality improves. Heads: could go either way. Feet: bad news.

And, by the way, specifics on the type and quantity of these additions is information that consumers are never privy to.

So, Why All the Hype? Studies of the digestibility and protein quality of meals and by-product meals have found that as a group, meals are slightly more digestible and contain slightly more available essential amino acids than their associated by-product meals (3,4). However, there is also a lot of overlap between the two ingredient groups, meaning that a given meal may be better, equal to or even lower in quality than a given by-product meal.

Overall, the differences that have been found are neither dramatic nor worthy of the hysteria that seems to accompany the word “by-product” among dog owners and some pet food companies. Therefore, the marketing hyperbole and excessive “patting oneself on the back” by companies that include meals but not by-product meals should be viewed by all dog owners with a hefty dose of skepticism. True, there is some difference, but probably not enough of a quality difference to warrant the inflammatory language and excessive claims that are being made by companies jumping on the by-product-free bandwagon.


Draggin’ Out the Ol’ Box Again: I would suggest that this exaggeration of difference has occurred (and been actively promoted) because there are so few available ways for dog owners to accurately assess the quality of ingredients, especially protein ingredients, in commercial pet foods. As a result, this single AAFCO-defined difference (meals vs. by-product meals) has caught on like a house on fire, with marketing campaigns flinging additional gasoline to fuel the flames and causing this distinction-without-a-difference to garner more importance than it comes even close to warranting.

It is an unfortunate paradox that one of the most important nutrients for dogs (protein) is supplied by a type of ingredient (protein meals) that consumers have almost no way of evaluating. This is especially concerning given that animal-source meals can vary tremendously in the components that make them up and ultimately in their quality (i.e. in nutrient content and digestibility). The three designators discussed previously —plant- vs. animal-source, species vs. generic and meal vs. by-product meal — are the only protein-ingredient quality designators available to consumers. This might not be an issue if they were in truth the most important quality differences among animal protein meals. However, they are not. Animal protein meals differ in ways that are invisible to consumers and can significantly influence the quality of the foods in which they are used:

  • Bone and connective tissue: Animal-source protein meals contain varying amounts of bone and connective tissues (this pertains to both meals and by-product meals), which affects the product’s protein quality and mineral balance. Bone matrix and connective tissues contain the protein collagen, which is poorly digested and utilized when included as a dietary protein source, and bone contributes excess amounts of calcium and several other minerals. Meals that are high in collagen and minerals from bone and connective tissues are of lower quality than those that contain a larger proportion of muscle meat.
  • Transport and contamination: Because inedible food products are not refrigerated or subject to the same handling regulations as foods destined for human consumption, both the handling and transportation of raw materials can affect the quality of the end product. If rendering is conducted at the slaughterhouse of origin, the meal is usually produced within a day or two following slaughter. However, when raw materials are transported to a rendering plant in another location, the time spent during transport under unrefrigerated conditions can lead to increased microbial contamination and oxidative damage.
  • Processing: Differences among rendering plants also exist and are important for the end product. High temperatures or excessively long cooking can damage a meal’s protein, making certain essential amino acids less digestible and available.
  • Supplier integrity: Finally, as seen with the Blue Buffalo case, pet food companies are at least somewhat dependent upon the integrity and honesty of their ingredient suppliers. A division within the animal feed industry designates some meals as pet-food grade and others as feed grade, with the former containing a lower percentage of ash (minerals) (5). In addition, some pet food companies select only meals that meet a particular standard, while others impose additional refining methods on their protein meals to increase digestibility and improve protein quality.
  • Tests that we do not hear about: Various analytical tests are used to measure a meal’s digestibility and amino acid availability, and many pet food companies also routinely measure the digestibility of their foods using feeding trials. However, this information is not easily available to consumers, and pet food companies are under no obligation to accept or reject meals of different quality levels or to share such information with consumers.

To date, there is no way for pet owners to differentiate among dry (extruded) dog foods that use high-quality animal protein meals and those that use poor-quality meals, other than the cost of the food and the three designators discussed previously. You can contact the company and specifically ask for information about the food’s protein digestibility and quality, of course. However, you may be disappointed. While researching my book Dog Food Logic, I contacted the manufacturers of more than 30 different pet-food brands and requested protein and diet digestibility information for each of the products. I received no reply at all from the majority of companies and useful information for just two of the brands.

 Are There Any Other Options? In today’s innovative market place, there are indeed a few. Two other animal-source protein ingredients (in addition to fresh meats prepared at home) are those that are either freeze-dried or dehydrated. Freeze-dried ingredients are typically used in raw food diets, but can also be cooked prior to packaging. Dehydration usually uses heat treatment to kill microbial growth and so moderately cooks the meat. These sources are likely to be of higher quality and digestibility because they have not undergone the high heat processing that meals are subjected to.

Dehydrated chicken                           Freeze dried chicken                 DEHYDRATED CHICKEN                                        FREEZE-DRIED CHICKEN 

If they are human-grade meats, all the better, as this means that the ingredients and the end-products were handled and produced using the same regulatory oversight as required with human foods. However, with a few exceptions, neither freeze-dried nor dehydrated meat sources are routinely used as the primary protein source in dry, extruded foods. Nor have I found a source of dried protein meals produced using human grade (i.e., edible) meat sources and human food processing methods. To do so (and to promote them as such) would add a dimension of choice and distinction regarding the quality of dry dog food that does not exist today. Dry extruded dog food continues to be the most popular type of dog food sold in the U.S., and I believe such products would be welcomed by owners willing to pay a bit more for a better regulated and higher quality food.

Take Away for Dog Folks: While rendered animal meals can be of high quality and can provide an excellent protein source in dry dog foods, if the animal-source meal has been poorly sourced, handled, processed, or regulated, its protein can be damaged, making it a poor source of essential amino acids for dogs and reducing the digestibility and quality of the entire diet. Unfortunately, there is no way for consumers to tell from a food’s label if the meal used is of high, moderate or low quality. Because meals make up the bulk of protein in dry dog foods, information about their quality, and by extension, how nourishing they are, is the most important consideration that we should be concerned with when we look at an ingredient list.

The problem is, despite what companies beating the “No By-Products” drum would like us to believe, we have no way of knowing which animal protein meals are better than others.

Cited References

  1.  Association of American Feed Control Officials. 2010. Official Feed Definitions; pp. 326–322.
  2. Aldrich, Daristotle. 1988. Petfood and the economic impact. Proceedings of the California Animal Nutrition Conference, Fresno, CA; pp. 1140–1148.
  3. Cramer, Greenwood, Moritz. 2007. Protein quality of various raw and rendered by-products commonly incorporated into companion animal diets. Journal of Animal Science 85:3285–3293.
  4. Locatelli, Howhler. 2003. Poultry byproduct meal: Consider protein quality and variability. Feed Management 54:6–10.
  5. Dozier, Dale, Dove. 2003. Nutrient composition of feed-grade and pet-food-grade poultry by-product meal. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 12:526–530.

Excerpted from: “Only Have Eyes for Your: Exploring Canine Research with the Science Dog” (2016).


Keep those Doggies Rollin’……Rawhide, Rawhide!

I have always hoped that someday I would find a connection between the Blues Brothers and dog nutrition. That day has come.

Rawhide, Rawhide: A dog person cannot walk into a pet supply store (or their own grocery store, for that matter) without noticing the explosion in the number of dog chews, dental devices and edible bones that are available for sale today. Some of these are biscuit or extruded concoctions containing a mixture of ingredients, while others originate from cow skin (rawhide chews) or are the left-over body parts of a hapless food animal (pig/lamb ears, hooves, and bully sticks).

If you do not know what a bully stick is, ask your mother. Better yet, ask your father.

rawhide knots    Bully Sticks   Pig ears  Hooves

Even as the selection of these items has expanded, nutritional information about them is still glaringly absent. Since all of these products are intended to be chewed slowly so that pieces or the entire product will be gradually consumed by the dog, we should at least be informed as to whether these items are actually digested by dogs, should we not?

Are they digestible? Dry matter digestibility refers to the proportion of a food that a dog’s gastrointestinal tract is capable of breaking down (digesting) and absorbing into the body. When we talk about the digestibility of a dog food, we are primarily concerned with its nutrient value and ability to nourish the dog. However, when we are considering the digestibility of rawhide treats, chews and dental products, the concerns are different but equally important. Any portion of a chew that is broken off and swallowed will travel through the length of a dog’s gastrointestinal tract, just like any other food. And, if the dog is able to bite off large chunks or swallow an entire chew at once, that piece has the potential to cause digestive upset, impede normal gut motility, or in the worse case scenario, cause obstruction if it is not dissolved and digested as it moves along.

Recently, a team of researchers at the University of Illinois decided to examine exactly this question by comparing the digestibility of different types of dog chews.

The studies: Two studies were conducted, both using an in vitro (test tube) technique that has been validated as a measure of the digestive conditions that occur in a dog’s stomach (gastric digestion) and small intestine (intestinal digestion). The first study compared in vitro dry matter digestibilities of sample products from six broad categories of dog treats (1). All of the products that were tested were produced by Hartz Mountain Corporation and the study was funded by the company. The second study compared just two types of treats, pork skin versus beef rawhide chews (2). The researchers also measured digestibility of the pork skin chew using a feeding trial with dogs. (For an explanation of digestibility trials with dogs, see Scoopin’ for Science). The reason for not doing a feeding study with the beef rawhide chew was not explained in the paper.

Results: Together, the two studies reported several interesting differences between the digestibility of dog chews:

  1. Chews made from pig’s ears, which are composed primarily of cartilage and the protein collagen had very low gastric (stomach) digestibilities (14 %). Although these were almost completely digested in the intestinal environment (90 %), the lack of change in gastric acid means that a pig’s ear treat, if swallowed, would potentially leave the stomach intact and enter the small intestine will little change in size and consistency.
  2. Similarly, with the exception of one product, rawhide chews made from cow skin were very poorly digested in the stomach. Intestinal digestion was almost complete for one product, but others continued to have low digestibility, even in the intestinal environment. The researchers noted that feeding rawhide chews to a dog who tended to consume large pieces could increase a dog’s risk for intestinal blockage.
  3. When a pork skin chew was compared directly to a beef rawhide chew, the pork skin product’s digestibility was significantly greater than that of beef rawhide chew. After six hours, which is approximately the time it takes for a meal to begin to leave a dog’s stomach and enter the small intestine, the pork chew was more than 50 percent digested, while the rawhide was only 7.6 percent digested. This low rate of gastric break down continued even when tested up to 24 hours. After simulation of digestion in the small intestine (the major site of digestive processes in dogs), the pork skin rawhide was almost 100 % digested, while the beef rawhide reached only 50 to 70 % digestion under the same conditions. Rawhide was digested up to 85 % only when exposed to the intestinal conditions for 24 hours.
  4. When dogs were fed one pork skin chew per day along with their normal diet, the overall digestibility of the diet increased. This corroborates the in vitro results and supports the conclusion that the pork skin chews were highly digestible.

Take Away for Dog Folks:

One of the most interesting results of these studies was the finding of such a large difference between the digestibility of pork skin versus beef rawhide chews. Because some dogs consume these types of chews rapidly and swallow large chunks, the fact that pork chews but not beef rawhides are highly degraded in the stomach and are highly digestible overall, is of significance to dog owners. These data suggest that if an owner is going to feed some type of rawhide chew (and mind you, I am not advocating for feeding these types of treats), but if one was choosing and had a dog who might consume the treat rapidly, feeding a pork skin chew appears to be a safer bet than a beef rawhide chew.

Second, it is important to note that all types of rawhide-type chews are composed of collagen, a  structural protein that makes up most of the connective tissues in the body. This is true for ears, pig skin, rawhide, and yes, even bully sticks. As these data show, collagen can be highly digestible (or not). The difference most likely depends on the source of the product and the type of processing that is used, both of which vary a great deal among products.

Feeding  dog a chew that is composed of collagen, even when it is highly digestible collagen, does not a nutritious treat make. Although collagen is a very important and essential protein in the body, it is not a highly nutritious food protein because it is composed almost completely of non-essential amino acids and is deficient in four of the essential amino acids. What this means from a practical perspective is that even though certain types of rawhide chews are found to be highly digestible and safe (from a digestibility perspective), this does not mean that they are providing high quality nutrition to the dog. In fact, they do not. While this research is important for pushing the peanut forward regarding the safety of these products in terms of digestibility, effects on gut motility, and risk of blockage, we still need more information (and selection) of chews for dogs that are both digestible and nutritious.

Cited Studies:

  1. de Godoy MRC, Vermillion R, Bauer LL, Yamka R, Frantz N, Jia T, Fahey GC Jr, Swanson KS. In vitro disappearance characteristics of selected categories of commercially available dog treats. Journal of Nutritional Science 2014; 3:e47;1-4.
  2. Hooda S, Ferreira LG, Latour MA, Bauer LL, Gahey GC Jr, Swanson KS. In vitro digestibility of expanded pork skin and rawhide chews, and digestion and metabolic characteristics of expanded pork skin chews in healthy adult dogs. Journal of Animal Science 2012; 90:4355-4361.

(Note: These studies and this blog essay do not address the ongoing and well-publicized problems with chicken jerky treats and illness in dogs. That is a topic for another time, another post).

Excerpted from: “Only Have Eyes for Your: Exploring Canine Research with the Science Dog” (2016).



Scoopin’ for Science

I was at the gym recently, swimming laps. After my work-out, I was sitting by the side of the pool and a fellow swimmer and friend stopped to chat about dogs. He has never owned a dog, but his daughter has been pressuring him and he thinks she is finally old enough to take on the responsibility of caring for a dog (good dad!). So, I was anticipating a discussion about breeds, where to look, training, feeding, etc. That is not where this was going at all. Instead, he wanted to talk about poop:

Me: “So, does she have a breed or breed-type that she is considering?”

Him: “No…..not yet. What I really want to ask you about is……the poop thing.”

Me: “Um…..what?”

Him: “You know. I see all of the people in our neighborhood taking their dogs for a  walk in the morning and they all carry these bags with them and then, ugh…..they all PICK UP THE POOP WITH THEIR HANDS!!!!”

Me: “Well, not exactly; there is a plastic baggie involved. But regardless, what is your point?”

Him: “I just find that so gross and disgusting. I don’t think I could do it.”

Me: “Wh…What???”

Him: “Ick. Yuck.” (Accompanied by a squeamish expression that I have never seen on the face of a grown man).

Me; “Okay, let me get this straight. You are a triathlete. You regularly beat the crap out of your body by swimming, running and cycling ridiculously long distances. You have backpacked and camped all over the country, with no “facilities’ and sometimes not bathing for days……and you squirm at picking up dog poop in a plastic baggie?”

Him: “Yeah, that about covers it.”

Me (laughing): “You gotta get over that dude. Take a class or something. All dog folks pick up poop. It’s no big deal.”

Him: “Hmmm…..” (not buying it).

Baggie poop

It really is no big deal. Many dog owners are not only comfortable with poop scooping, we also regularly examine the quality of our dog’s leavings as a general barometer of their health and the quality of the food that we are feeding.

So, when I learned of a recent study that asked a group of dog owners to do some “poop scoopin’ for science” I was only surprised that there have not been more studies of this nature published in the past.

The Issue: Those of you who have read Dog Food Logic know that I personally advocate for increased transparency in the pet food industry and for the need to provide dog owners with information that is actually useful to us when selecting foods. Without question, one of the most important measures of  a food’s quality is its digestibility – the proportion of the food that a dog’s gastrointestinal tract is able to actually break down (digest) and absorb into the body for use.  Digestibility correlates well with both ingredient quality and proper food processing techniques, so this information would be very helpful for dog owners to have. However, the vast majority of companies do not provide it. The only (very rough) estimate of food digestibility that we have is that gleaned by regularly examining the quality and quantity of our dog’s feces. A behavior that, in addition to providing very little real information, lends itself to weird looks from neighbors such as my swimming friend. A crappy state of affairs, indeed.

Industry’s Position: When challenged, representatives of the pet food industry generally deflect criticism by maintaining that current AAFCO regulations do not require reporting of food digestibility. (The old “we don’t gotta so we ain’t gonna” defense). Further, not all pet food companies regularly measure digestibility because doing so requires them to conduct feeding trials with dogs which in turn requires access to research kennels and laboratories. Such studies are expensive and may be cost prohibitive for some of the smaller companies that do not maintain their own kennels or in-house analytical laboratories.

Fair enough. However, what about using dogs who live in homes? Why not enlist everyday Citizen Scientists who are dedicated to their dogs, feed commercial dog food, are concerned about quality, and who do not squirm at picking up dog poop? Not only would this lead to increased numbers of dogs enrolled in these trials (thus supporting improved accuracy of digestibility estimates), it would also allow needed comparisons among breeds, ages, life styles and activity levels of dogs, and could get information about food quality out to the consumers who need it. Another definite advantage of in-home studies is that they lead to reduced need for kenneled research dogs, a clear animal welfare benefit.

Happily for us, a group of researchers from two universities in The Netherlands were thinking the same thing (1).

The Study: The objective of their study was to develop a simple method of measuring dog food digestibility that could be used with privately owned dogs living in homes. They recruited a group of 40 adult, healthy dogs and asked their owners to feed a test food (and nothing else) for a period of 7 days. Amounts to feed each dog were pre-measured and the volume the dog consumed each day was recorded. In this study, the test diet was a commercial dry (extruded) food formulated for adult dogs. After seven days of feeding, the owners were asked to collect all of their dog’s feces for a period of 24-hours. The feces were frozen and submitted to the researchers for analysis.

Here is a flow-chart showing how a digestibility trial works. It is conducted in the same manner with kenneled dogs, although feeding and feces collection periods can vary:

Digest Trials

Results: The owners recorded the amount of food that their dog consumed each day and collected all of their dog’s feces over the final 24-hours of the study. The researchers then analyzed the nutrient content in the food that was consumed and in the feces that were excreted. From these data, they calculated the proportion of the food that each dog digested, called a “digestibility coefficient” and average values for the entire sample of dogs. In this experiment, the food’s dry matter digestibility was 77.4 % and its protein digestibility was 77.7 %, values that reflect a food of “low to moderate” quality. The variability between dogs (as reflected by the standard errors), was found to be low. This suggests that the dogs in the trial showed consistency in their ability to digest the food and supports the in-home trial as a valid procedure. In addition, the study reported compliance in 39 out of 40 homes, demonstrating some pretty dedicated poop scooping.


Up on the ol’ Box: Another recent study evaluated a set of eight commercial dog foods using both nutrient analysis and a set of feeding trials like the one above, but with kenneled dogs (2). They found a very wide range in the overall (dry matter) digestibilities and protein digestibilities among the eight products and noted that these differences would not be reflected by information that was provided on the pet food labels. The authors went even further, stating: “…we have to note that there is no comprehensive list of information available to the consumer to evaluate the quality of commercial diets. A combination of laboratory analyses and estimation of digestibility coefficients is the only way to perform an accurate and complete evaluation of the quality of a commercial diet”  And yet, not all pet food companies supply complete nutrient levels for their foods and no pet food companies regularly provides digestibility coefficients to dog owners.

The results of this pilot study tell us that in-home studies with owned dogs can provide needed information about dog food quality and can allow the study of factors that may influence how well dogs utilize different foods, such as age, breed, size, health status and activity levels. Compliance was very good; these owners were willing to do their part, scooping poop for science. Now all that we need is for pet food companies to step up and begin to conduct in-home studies and make the information that they provide available to the dog folks who care.

Cited Studies:

  1. Hagen-Plantinga EA, Bosch G, Hendriks WH. Practical approach to determine apparent digestibility of canine diets. Journal of Nutritional Science 2014;3;e31:1-4.
  2.  Daumas C, Paragon BM, Thorin C, Martin L, Dumon H, Ninet S, Nguyen P. Evaluation of eight commercial dog diets. Journal of Nutritional Science 2014;3;e63:1-5.

Excerpted from: “Only Have Eyes for Your: Exploring Canine Research with the Science Dog” (2016).



“Dog Food Logic” Wins Maxwell Award!

My publisher, Dogwise, informed me last week that my book “Dog Food Logic: Making Smart Decisions for your Dog in an Age of Too Many Choices” has won the Dog Writer’s Association of America’s Maxwell Award for Best Health Care Book of 2014! For more information about “Dog Food Logic” and about my newest book “Beware the Straw Man” click the links below.

dog-food-logic-cover-final               Beware Straw Man Cover

Not Your Grandmother’s Kibble

When I was in graduate school, a fellow student recommended a book called The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas Kuhn. Published in 1962, it was already considered a classic in the philosophy of science by the 1980’s. Kuhn is responsible for defining and popularizing the concept of “paradigm shifts.” He explains that historically, scientific advancement has occurred as a series of relatively uneventful periods punctuated by intellectually abrupt “revolutions.” These are discoveries that are so new and unexpected that they change the entire way in which we do science, think about a topic, or even live our lives. Once accepted, these new concepts completely replace those that preceded them.

Kuhn CycleParadigm Shifts: A paradigm shift is a change from one way of thinking to another; a new way of looking at an old problem. These shifts do not just happen, but rather are driven by people of great minds or by events of great import. For example, the development of agriculture changed humans from nomadic hunter-gatherers to sedentary community builders, and for better or for worse, allowed us to populate and dominate the entire planet. Similarly, Darwin’s theory of evolution changed not only how we looked at all other species on the planet, but (with some continuing resistance) how we look upon being human itself. Paradigm shifts also can be caused by new inventions. The invention of the printing press in the 1400’s led to the unprecedented preservation and distribution of knowledge and had a major role in the scientific revolution. In our own time, the introduction of the personal computer and the internet have had cultural ramifications that have impacted our personal and professional lives in ways that could never have been anticipated. These transformations all involve a replacement of old belief systems or way of doing things with an entirely new paradigm.

At the risk of over-dramatization, it appears that we are in the middle of a paradigm shift today that affects how we think about commercial pet foods and how best to feed our dogs. Although not a life-changing event for most people, or even perhaps not for most dog people, the changes that we are seeing in the pet food industry and among owner attitudes during the last seven years are unprecedented and certainly worth examining.

Paradigm Shift

If you remember, the pet food industry was literally “born” in the early 1960’s as a consequence of the development of the extrusion process. Producing dry foods that provided complete nutrition, stored well and were convenient allowed dog owners to feed their dogs a single product for a relatively low price and to feel good while doing it.

Vintage Label

Pet Food Choice Explodes: Starting in the mid 1980’s, research that studied the nutrient needs of dogs increased dramatically both at universities and within the private sector (pet food companies). This expansion occurred in large part because of the increasing importance that dogs had to our lives and the creation of an entire pet industry around that relationship. The advances in our understanding of canine nutrient needs and feeding behavior led to improvements in both the quality of many foods as well as an explosion in the number of brands and products that were available to dog owners.

By the new millennium, more than 90 percent of Americans were feeding a commercial dry (extruded) dog food to their dog and the explosion of life stage and life style foods has occurred almost exclusively within the extruded dry product segment. In addition to puppy and adult foods, we saw the development of products that target different adult sizes, activity levels, breeds, and health conditions. The variety of ingredients included in foods has similarly expanded, with the inclusion of new protein sources, grains (or no grains), types of fat and “functional” nutrients.

Cat's Poo

On the business side of things, the 1990’s and early 2000’s witnessed unprecedented growth in sales, followed by an epidemic of pet food company mergers and acquisitions. Small, privately owned pet food companies and their brands were gobbled up by a small handful of multi-national corporations. Over time, a single company became the owner not only of multiple brands of food but also numerous product lines within brands. By the early 2000’s, the majority of pet food brands sold in the United States were owned by the “five giants” of the pet food industry: Mars Petcare; Nestle-Purina PetCare; Colgate-Palmolive (owner of Hills); Procter and Gamble (P&G) Pet Care; and Del Monte Foods (recently renamed Big Heart). These five are now further consolidated down to four, when Mars purchased all of P&G’s pet food brands (Eukanuba, Iams and Natura) in April of 2014.

Pet Food Recall of 2007: The pet food paradigm shift that began in the early 2000’s accelerated tremendously in the spring of 2007. Sadly, this change came about not in response to a new discovery or an innovative type of pet food. Rather, it was set off by a massive pet food recall of unprecedented proportion that was caused by the intentional adulteration of a common food ingredient.  The problem began when numerous dogs and cats started to become suddenly ill with renal failure, many never recovering. Although we now know that the company that was responsible, Menu Foods, had started to investigate the problem by early March, it took weeks of consumer complaints before a voluntary recall was initiated.

Worst nightmare: I remember that time well. My mom and I were attending a Canine Freestyle seminar together in St. Louis, Missouri. My mother, a trainer also, had been a board member of NADOI, and this seminar was held in conjunction with the organization’s annual meeting. During a seminar break, a long-time friend of my mother’s came and sat with us. She tearfully related that she had lost her beloved, young, German Shepherd earlier that week to renal disease, brought on by the tainted food. The most heart wrenching detail that I remember from that conversation was the distraught woman telling us of her continued attempts to entice her sick dog to eat the tainted food prior to knowing that it was the food that was actually causing her dog’s illness and eventual death. She spoke of warming the food and adding little tidbits to it, in an attempt to nurture her boy back to health. For me, and also for my mom and others in the room, this put a highly personal face on the daily statistics of pet illness and loss that we were reading about in the media. It is an understatement to say that losing a dog in such a way is every dog lover’s worst nightmare.

Over the following months and into early summer, the extent of the problem became appallingly evident. According to Dr. Stephen Sundlof, who was the head of the FDA’s Center of Veterinary Medicine at the time, the root cause of the contamination came from a switch in ingredient supplier. Buyers at Menu Foods had recently changed to a new supplier of wheat gluten, an ingredient that is included in canned foods as a thickening and binding agent. They had switched to an Arizona-based company called ChemNutra that was importing the ingredient from China. ChemNutra offered wheat gluten at a price that was about 30 percent lower than the cost of making (not selling) the ingredient in the US. It eventually became known that the Chinese suppliers were intentionally adding two non-food compounds, melamine and cyanuric acid, to wheat flour in order to make the flour appear to be the more expensive ingredient, wheat gluten. The adulteration had the effect of raising apparent protein levels of the ingredient in a deceptive manner, thus allowing the company to charge a higher price for what was actually a very low quality product. When present together in a pet food, we now know that melamine and cyanuric acid crystallize into a complex that accumulates in the kidney, leading to kidney damage and death. By the end of the disaster, it was estimated that over 5,000 pet food products had been tainted and were recalled and thousands of cats and dogs were sickened or killed.

This event, along with several subsequent pet food recalls for salmonella and aflatoxin (a toxin produced as a result of mold contamination to corn or wheat ingredients), led to changes in dog owners’ understanding of how pet food was made in the United States and to a dramatic shift in overall perceptions of the pet food industry. Perhaps the biggest shock to dog owners was the revelation that a single manufacturer, in this case Menu Foods Limited, was responsible for the production of dozens of brands of pet food that were owned by a wide variety of pet food companies, including the “big five” discussed earlier. As a result, different brands of foods were often produced using the same ingredients that originated from a common supplier. Perhaps even more significant was the realization that many pet food ingredients were sourced from outside of the United States, often in countries such as China, that had few or insufficient regulatory standards. Collectively, the truths that were revealed in the wake of the largest and most devastating pet food recall in history led to a rapid loss of consumer confidence and to increased skepticism of pet food companies and their products. Contaminated food

Other cultural shifts: While pet food recalls are dramatic and highly salient examples, several other cultural changes have also contributed to the pet food paradigm shift. It is common knowledge among people who work in the pet food industry that trends occurring in the human food industry quite reliably predict what we can expect to see occurring a few years later in the pet food industry. A recent example of this is the increased popularity of grain-free dog foods. These foods have their origins in the gluten-free and eventually grain-free movement in human diets. Grain-free brands of dog food were virtually non-existent before the year 2000. Today, almost every pet food company includes a dedicated grain-free brand or product line and some companies sell nothing but grain-free products. Similarly, as interest has grown about where and how our own food is produced, so too has there been increased interest in knowing more about the origin of the foods that we feed to our dogs and cats. Owners are increasingly sophisticated in their knowledge of foods and are more willing than ever before to scrutinize ingredients and label claims. Market segments that were once considered small and “niche” are now mainstream. Some owners wish to choose only foods that include organic ingredients, some eschew any foods that may contain genetically modified organisms, and others are switching to raw diets for their dogs. Many are concerned about the source of ingredients that go into foods as well as about who is producing their dog’s food. And, some are equally concerned with the environmental or animal welfare issues surrounding their own and their dogs’ foods or with consuming only foods that originate locally or regionally.

Not just your grandmother’s kibble anymore: So, let’s take a look at where exactly the pet food paradigm shift has led us. During the last 5 years, the pet food industry has witnessed an explosion of innovation and the development of new feeding philosophies and products. The development of extrusion in the early 1960’s almost instantaneously revolutionized the pet food industry, in large part because it led to the mass production of foods that were convenient, economical and that could be stored for long periods. Because the extrusion cooking process efficiently cooked starch and resulted in both increased digestibility and enhanced taste, dry foods contained a relatively high proportion of starch, plus various sources of animal- and/or plant-based proteins, animal or plant fats/oils, and vitamin/mineral “pre-mixes.” Convenience has been an attractive feature of extruded dry foods for many dog owners. Not only are these foods easy to store and feed, but they can now be purchased at every supermarket and big box outlet found in America’s shopping centers. Owners can purchase dry dog foods at grocery stores and mass market retailers such as Walmart, Target and even Walgreens. Together, these large retail sources are responsible for more than 70 percent of dog food sales. The pet superstores are responsible for about one-fifth of sales, followed distantly by small pet supply stores. Generally speaking, the perception of owners is that higher quality (i.e., premium) foods are available at pet supply stores, while the lower quality brands, which are also lower in cost, can be readily purchased at grocery store chains and mass market retailers. And generally speaking, these distinctions are true.

Notwithstanding the continued popularity of extruded foods, there are a number of completely new approaches to producing dog foods that have been developed in recent years as part of this paradigm shift and that provide a new set of choices to dog owners. Several of these approaches are used primarily to produce safe and storable raw foods, such as dehydration and freeze-drying. Others are a new approach to cooking and storing foods that contain ingredients other than those that are typically included in dry foods, in some cases, using ingredients that never leave the “edible” (USDA term for human grade foods) supply stream and so are classified as being produced from human grade ingredients and using human food production methods. While these foods still comprise a relatively small portion of the pet food market, I think they reflect the enhanced innovation and exploration into new possibilities that are coming about during the new age of pet foods as well as a response from dog owners who are demanding higher transparency from the pet food industry, along with higher quality and safer foods. The table below summarizes several of these approaches and provides a few brand examples for you to explore, should you so choose. (Note: The table does not contain a complete list of brands, but rather is intended to provide a randomly selected group of brands as examples).

Food Form Description Brand Examples
Dehydrated Dehydration involves removing most of the water from the mixed and ground raw ingredients. Gentle heating during dehydration kills microorganisms and partially cooks the food. Portions are rehydrated with warm water immediately prior to feeding. The Honest Kitchen, Addiction, ZiWi Peak
Freeze-dried Ingredients are mixed and then frozen under a vacuum to allow which allows product moisture to sublimate directly from the solid phase to the gas phase. Portions are rehydrated with warm water. Stella & Chewy’s, Nutrisca, Orijen, SoJo
Refrigerated Ingredients are gently cooked (not extruded), shaped into tubes or patties and refrigerated. FreshPet
Frozen (Cooked) Ingredients are gently cooked (not extruded), then frozen. May be complete and balanced or a pre-mix to which other ingredients are added at home Evermore, Bil-Jac, Buddy’s Kitchen
Frozen (Raw) Ingredients are combined, frozen, and packaged as rolls, or individual meal-size patties Stella & Chewys, Nature’s Variety, Bravo!
Pre-mixes A frozen or freeze-dried mix of either non-meat ingredients (to which the owner adds cooked or raw meat), or of meat ingredients (to which the owner adds vegetables, fruits, grains) Fresh Oasis, SoJo, Bravo!
Raw Coated Baked or extruded kibbles coated with freeze-dried (usually raw) ingredients Great Life, Instinct (treats)

 NOTE: This essay was excerpted from my 2014 book “Dog Food Logic(Dogwise Publishing, 2014), Chapter 7, pages 116-119. To continue reading and learn more, just click the image below. (Also available on Amazon). This essay kicks off a new series of Science Dog blogs that will examine new research in canine nutrition and feeding. Coming Soon – “The Nature of Natural”!

Amazon Cover

What’s Your Dinner Ritual?

The Case dogs have an evening dinner ritual. This ritual has not changed much in the last few years and deviates very little in its nightly performance. It begins, like clockwork, at 8:15 pm and is currently directed by Cadie, our senior Golden girl. Mike (my husband) typically feeds the dogs their evening meal, so is her usual target. As the self-appointed “dinner getter” Cadie takes her responsibilities very seriously. She is in charge of checking the time (apparently every 15 seconds after 7:00 p.m.), of carefully tracking potential human movement towards the utility room where the dog food resides, and of counting dogs to determine when everyone is in the house and ready to eat.

Chip Cadie Vinny Cooper Dec 2012CADIE AND HER BOYS

When all key factors are in place, Cadie declares “Game On!” and the ritual begins in earnest. First comes the unrelenting stare; laser-beam eyes capable of burning holes through flesh. Cadie’s style is impressive; she sits rock solid still, barely breathing, eyes fixed on Mike’s face. If the stares do not elicit the desired response (dinner), she gradually inches closer until she is perched on the couch, Snoopy vulture-style, her cute little snout hovers inches above Mike’s face. If there is still no food-related movement, she adds the woofing; persistent little barks timed at two-second intervals for maximum annoyance. The paw on the arm is added last and occasionally Cadie feigns a dramatic hunger-induced swoon. (Okay, I made that last part up, but it really seems like something she would try). Finally, if all else has failed and it looks like dinner may not be forthcoming, Cadie enlists her second-in-command, Vinny the Brittany, to help.

With two dogs hovering with pleading eyes, Mike finally gets to his feet and walks towards the utility room. An explosion of happiness erupts! It is time for a DOG PARTY!!! Four dogs, all running, spinning, barking, more spinning, joyous, joyous Dinner Time, Dinner Time – A time for celebration! As Mike measures food into bowls, he sings the Case Family Dinner Time song (Who wants dinner? Who wants dinner? Everybody does! Everybody does! ). All four dogs crowd around for the measuring into bowls; Cadie keeping a keen eye on portions. Once the food is doled out, sitting is required prior to eating and all of the dogs adhere to the single hard and fast dinner rule – eat only from your own bowl. When everyone has finished their meal, the dogs are then allowed to play musical bowls, each thoroughly inspecting and licking every bowl. Finally, dinner complete, everyone goes outside for a potty break, knowing that tomorrow will be another day, complete with a new joyous opportunity for food and the celebratory dinnertime ritual.


Do you have a dinnertime ritual with your dog? Does your dog have very specific and endearing “dinner-getting” behaviors? Do you have a particular way of responding to these? And, tell the truth now…….do you have a dinnertime song?

Food  is love (emotional brain): When we think about our daily lives with our dogs, we consider many shared enjoyments. And with our dogs, just as with our human family and friends, dinner time is not only about nutrition and food – it is just as much about joy and affection, and ritual. Indeed, there is perhaps no other aspect of our lives with dogs in which we show love more consistently than with the decisions that we make about what, how, and when we feed them. And it is exactly these feelings that cause choosing the best possible food or method of feeding for our dogs to weigh so heavily upon our minds.

And, it is science (rational brain): It is a fact that nutrition is a science that is governed by the same scientific principles and methods as all of the hard sciences such as biology, chemistry and physics. However, for most of us, applying the principles of sound nutrition to our dogs’ daily lives does not feel like science. Rather feeding our dogs feels like love, and caretaking, and nurturing.  And indeed, providing good nutritional care should feel good. Without question, the deep love and commitment that we have for our dogs is essential for caring for them well.

Using both: Still, we need evidence, scientifically acquired evidence, to make informed decisions about nutritious foods and healthful feeding practices for dogs. Critical thinking skills enable us to sort out reliable evidence from information that is based upon conjecture, anecdote, and belief. The good news is that emotions and rational thought are not mutually exclusive, and in fact can play quite nicely together in your decision-making brain. Loving our dogs and wanting the best for them (our emotional mind) plus a set of well-honed critical thinking skills (our rational mind) can work together quite efficiently to help us to make wise food choices. While emotions are essential for decision-making and can influence us in many positive ways, we must also be aware of (and avoid) the cognitive traps that emotions can lead to and that clever pet food marketing campaigns often rely upon. Once you have these skills in place, the resulting smart food choices (coupled with a really cool dinnertime song) can help you to enjoy your dinnertime rituals with your dogs for many years to come.

This essay is excerpted from Chapter 1 of my new book “Dog Food Logic“. If you enjoyed this piece would like to read more, the book is available from the publisher (Dogwise) and on Amazon:

 Amazon Cover                                            Amazon Cover              AMAZON                                                                    DOGWISE

Dog Food Logic

Dog Food Logic: Making smart decisions for your dog in an age of too many choices” is  now available! Click on the images for more information and to order. (Note: E-versions are already available from Dogwise, and will be included on Amazon soon).

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Reviewer: Dr. Brennen McKenzie, MA, VMD; President, Evidence-Based Veterinary Medicine Association,
Author of SkeptVet Blog

Dog Food Logic is an indispensable book for any pet owner who wants to make thoughtful, informed decisions about what to feed his or her canine companions. The dog food industry is a bewildering, ever-changing landscape of companies and brands, and dog owners are inundated with marketing masquerading as science, with rigid advice from self-declared experts, and with fads every bit as intense and short-lived as those in the human weight loss business. Dog Food Logic cuts through the noise and chaos and provides pet owners with a rational, science-based approach to evaluating their pets’ dietary needs and their feeding choices.

Rather than simply telling dog owners what food to buy, Dog Food Logic provides a concise and comprehensible guide to the three main subjects we must understand in order to make sound feeding choices: the science of canine nutrition, the nature of the dog food industry, and the pitfalls in our own ways of thinking that make us susceptible to marketing hype and irrational decisions. Rather than trying to tell us what to feed, Ms. Case empowers dog owners to make choices consistent with the needs of our individual pets and our own values.

In Dog Food Logic, the author displays a deep understanding of not only the science of nutrition but of the human-animal bond. Feeding our pets is more than providing them with essential nutrients. It is an expression of love and one of the most enjoyable shared experiences between pet and owner. Ms. Case understands that the emotional nature of feeding our animal companions must be appreciated and nurtured, but that it can also make us vulnerable to manipulation. Advertising and advice about what to feed our pets often plays on our anxieties about their health and happiness and our desire to do everything possible to ensure a long and healthy life for our dogs. Ms. Case is able to help us see through such manipulative marketing and make sound feeding decisions based on science while still respecting the role of feeding in the deep bond between owners and our pets.

As a veterinarian, a scientist, and a dog owner, I have waited a long time for a book like Dog Food Logic, one which I can enthusiastically recommend to my clients and colleagues. After reading Dog Food Logic, you will of course have a deeper understanding of canine nutrition, the pet food industry, and how to make good choices about feeding your pet. But you will also have a greater understanding of yourself as a pet owner and a consumer. Understanding how we make choices, and how those choices can be influenced by the quirks of our own thought processes and by the manipulative power of marketing, enables us to make better decisions about all aspects of our pets’ care. If we apply the same critical thinking and evidence-based approach to behavior and training, veterinary care, and all the other decisions we make as pet owners, we will better caretakers with happier, healthier pets.


Reviewer: Steve Dale, CABC, columnist Tribune Content Agency; radio host Black Dog Radio Productions and WGN Radio (Chicago); contributing editor USA Weekend

Pet food is like a religion for many – but now those strong emotional ties can be backed up with fact. Linda Case, separates fact from fiction, and explains the complex terms and offers a guide to pet nutrition in simple to comprehend language. Unlike other books on this topic, there is no agenda here – except to present facts and then allow pet owners to make their own logical conclusions, letting the kibble drop where it may.


Reviewer: Claudia Kawczynska, Founder and Editor-in-chief, The Bark

Dog Food Logic is the indispensable guide to the science behind canine nutrition that will help us to make wise, well-informed choices about how and what we feed our dogs. It takes the fear out of trying to understand proper nutrition and will empower us to determine what is best for the health of our dogs.


Reviewer: Dr. George C. Fahey, Jr, Professor Emeritus of Animal Science, University of IL at Champaign-Urbana

Not often does one consider a book of this sort to be a “page turner”. Sure … a book may be very readable and the material presented accurate and informative. But, in so many instances, reading page after page of scientific jargon can be a sure cure for insomnia. So …, a “page turner” … really??? That’s exactly what I found when I picked up this book for the first time and read every single word in spite of a hectic schedule. Simply stated, this book was very difficult to put down, and it was with great displeasure that this happened to me on several occasions throughout the reviewing process.

Perhaps it was the writing style of the author – relaxed and sometimes emotional, yet at the same time scientific, credible, and understandable. Perhaps it was the examples used to illustrate major points – story-like, but with just the right content of scientific rigor and hard facts. Perhaps it was the balance of topics provided – from the emotional (e.g., Food is Love) to the highly scientific (e.g., What’s So Special About a Dog’s Nutritional Needs?). Whatever it was, I found this to be a very compelling presentation of topics related to pet animal nutrition and the pet food industry that provides the foods for these animals. Rarely, if ever, can one find the variety of topics presented in this text to be under one cover. The author clearly has done due diligence in investigating the 11 major topics covered in the book, then distilling and summarizing that information into an entertaining, factual, educational presentation that will benefit readers regardless of their expertise (or lack thereof) in this discipline. There is something in this book for everyone interested in pets and what they eat. And there is no question that a pet owner will come away with a great deal of awareness of the complexities associated with the seemingly easy task of choosing the proper food for his/her animal companion.

There are several unique features of this book that are noteworthy:
1.Evidence-based decision-making as applied to dog nutrition is explained and advocated, as is the use of scientific information to make wise decisions about pet animal health and well-being. This approach is compared and contrasted to other gathering processes such as placing value on personal opinions of others, anecdotes, and testimonials.
2.An excellent explanation of the key components of a scientific article is provided. After reading this section, a lay person should be able to discern the key findings of the research group who published the article.
3.Detailed information on the nutritional idiosyncrasies of the senior dog and the “athletic” vs. the “couch potato” dog is provided.
4.The chapter about marketing is fascinating with good separation of reality and hype.
5.The appendices are valuable supplements to the textual material.

There are a few issues discussed in the book that I don’t agree with completely:
1.The importance of the owner knowing the digestibility values for specific foods is overstated. While I am a strong advocate of the digestibility measurement as an index of food quality, there is ample scientific information available allowing an owner to infer from the ingredient list (and the order of ingredients) what the approximate digestibility of his/her particular pet food might be. This takes some time and study on the part of the owner, but if they really want to know, sufficient information exists to allow them to determine a ballpark digestibility value.
2.Ingredients from countries other than the U.S. are devalued to some extent in this text. Hundreds of very successful pet food companies are in business all across the world. Many of them would be unknown to the American pet owner, yet they prepare excellent quality foods from ingredients purchased in their own country and from countries other than the U.S. Most ingredients from other countries are just fine with a few exceptions.
3.The demand for a higher degree of transparency from the pet food industry, with the suggestion that key information be included on the pet food bag, is impractical. There is only so much room on the bag, and most bags have a lot of information written on them already (in font sizes sometimes difficult to see without a magnifying glass!). In addition, I doubt that the majority of pet owners want to spend a lot of time on the “sausage-making” details associated with pet food production. ISO certification serves the purpose of identifying foods of high quality, and that should give peace of mind to pet owners.


Reviewer: Dr. Jessica Vogelsang, DVM, CVJ, Author, speaker, and CEO of Pawcurious Media

Don’t read this book if you want someone to tell you what to feed your dog. This is a book for people who want to learn, in a reasoned and thoughtful way, how to figure it out for themselves. Dog Food Logic goes way beyond the usual textbook list of nutritional requirements to cover the pet food industry in all its glory: the history, the business, the marketing, and best of all, the science.

Case deftly navigates the most controversial topics in pet food and presents the big picture without interjecting judgment about what approach is best. There’s something here for everyone: pet care professionals and dog lovers alike will learn something new from this informative, easy to read, and well researched book.