A Science Dog Webinar: “Understanding Evidence-based Dog Training”

Greetings Science Dog Followers!

I am pleased to announce that the International Association of Animal Behavior Consultants (IAABC) is sponsoring an on-demand Science Dog webinar.

Understanding Evidence-based Dog Training – Why One Dog (or Anecdote) does not a Study Make” is available to all interested dog owners, trainers and dog professionals.

Description: As dog owners and trainers, we are responsible for making numerous decisions for our animals on a daily basis. Some of these decisions are simple and easy to make, while others are of much greater importance to our dogs’ emotional and physical well-being. In today’s world, the amount of information that we are exposed to and influenced by is vast and often overwhelming.

In this webinar, students will:

  • Learn to identify and critically evaluate the many sources of information that influence our training and behavior practices and examine the role that science should play in our dog training decisions
  • Review the scientific method and understand its application to research studies of canine cognition, behavior, and training
  • Explore a detailed (and fun!) case study with dogs to better understand research study designs, the selection of study groups, use of controls, data measurement and collection, inclusion of statistical tests, compilation of results, and drawing appropriate conclusions.

Following completion of this webinar, participants will:

  • Understand the way in which the scientific method is applied to studies of dog behavior and training
  • Be able to identify and assess the essential components of a well-designed research study
  • Have the skills to critically evaluate different types of information sources for reliability
  • Discuss the role that evidence-based training and behavior knowledge play into their own training practices.

Class fees and CEUs: This on-demand (self-study) webinar begins on the student’s sign-on date and remains available for 6 months.

  • IAABC member fee: $30.00
  • Non-member fee: $45.00
  • 1.75 CEUs for IAABC & KPA; CCPDT CEUs pending.

Register on the IAABC website: 

Questions? Comment below or email me directly! Hope to see you there!

Get Help! Pony is in Trouble!

This year, for her birthday, Alice got a pony. She named him……Pony.

ALLY AND PONY

Pony has rapidly become Alice’s favorite toy. She carries him everywhere, wrestles with him, wrangles him, growls at him, and generally treats Pony quite badly. (Apparently, Ally has not yet been convinced of the benefits of reward-based pony training). Regardless, Pony and Ally have become inseparable.

Until the day that Pony became lost.

It began like any other morning. Mike and I were getting ready to head out the door for a hike with Ally and Cooper. Pete the cat was underfoot asking for his breakfast, and Cooper was waiting by the door.

Ally? Not around. When Mike called her, she came running into the kitchen, stared intently at Mike and then raced back into the living room.

Ahhh……there was the problem. Pony was stuck between the wall and the back of the couch. Ally could not fit back there to reach him. Looking back and forth from Mike to Pony, Ally communicated the seriousness of the crisis and her need for assistance (someone with thumbs). Mike retrieved Pony, there ensued a loving reunion, and all was again good in the world.

ALLY VOWS TO NEVER AGAIN ALLOW PONY OUT OF HER SIGHT

For most dog folks, a pretty normal morning, eh?

Yet, the act of Alice telling Mike that Pony was in trouble, that she knew where Pony was, and that she needed Mike’s help, is considered to be a complex form of communication. It is called referential gesturing and involves both motivation (“I WANT Pony!!”) and intention (“I need your help to get him!”).

Referential Gestures: For a gesture to be considered referential, it must possess these five attributes:

  1. It is directed towards an object or an objective (Pony).
  2. It is mechanically ineffective (Ally running from Mike to Pony cannot save Pony)
  3. It is directed towards another individual (Mike)
  4. It results in a voluntary response by the receiver (Mike saves Pony).
  5. It has intention (Obvious. Pony is in trouble and must be saved).

Pointing: Pointing is one of the most frequently used human referential gestures. Dogs understand and respond to all types of human pointing, such as hand points, foot points, and gaze. (I review these studies in detail in my newest book, “Dog Smart“). However, to date, research studies have focused on the dog’s ability to understand human gestures, rather than the use of these gestures by dogs and our ability to understand and respond to them. Of course, anyone who lives with multiple dogs knows that dogs are masters at signaling the location of a bit of food on the ground, a favorite toy, or (unfortunately) something smelly and suitable for rolling upon to other dogs in the family. Similarly, I bet that any dog owner reading this piece can easily identify one or two ways that their dog uses referential signaling with the humans in their life.

However, most of us probably have no idea exactly how good dogs are at this. They are really, really good……We have some new research that tells us so. Here it is:

The Study: Researchers at the University of Salford in the UK recruited a group of 37 dogs and owners, and used the Citizen Science protocol developed by Alexandra Horowitz and Julie Hecht to collect data. For a period of several weeks, owners filmed their dog performing “everyday” acts of communication with them. Examples included, but were not restricted to, requesting food, asking for a toy, or requesting that a door be opened. A total of 242 communication gestures were recorded and submitted for analysis. The researchers coded and analyzed communicative gestures according to the dog’s perceived goal, frequency of use and interaction outcome (whether the goal was achieved or not). Results: 47 different forms of referential gestures were identified from the submitted video footage. That is a LOT. (Can you think of 47 distinct ways in which you gesture to signal a need to others?). They also found:

  • A Conservative Estimate: When the researchers applied all five of the features identified above, the initial group of 47 gestures was distilled to 19 that were solid and indisputable examples of referential gesturing. That is still a LOT. Altogether, these were used over 1000 times in the collected videos of 37 dogs.
  • What Dogs Ask For (and Get): The four most commonly used and most successful referential gestures were requests for petting/scratching, food or water, to go outdoors, and to retrieve a toy (Pony!).
  • Gaze Alternation: Among all of the dogs, direct gaze and gaze alternation, looking back and forth from the owner to the goal, were by far the most common gestures that were used. Almost 400 instances of referential gaze were recorded, with dogs using eye contact to communicate a wide range of goals.
  • Gesture Portfolios: Dogs varied tremendously in the number and type of gestures that they used to communicate. It was not uncommon for a dog to employ several different gestures (gaze, head turn, pawing, barking) for a single goal and to switch to a new gesture if the first was not successful. Interestingly, dogs who lived with more than one person tended to use a larger repertoire of gestures, perhaps having developed customized ways of communicating with each person.

Take Away for Dog Folks: It is important to put this information in the context of what we know about other animals. The use of referential gestures in species other than humans is considered to be rare. Great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans) use one or two forms of referential gesturing with other apes and occasionally, when in captivity, with human caretakers. There are also a few examples of this form of communication in birds and some fish species. But in all of these cases, the gestures are limited to one or two forms and are used only with members of the same species. Cross-species referential gesturing is not a normal part of most animals’ repertoire. Nor is there anything  even close to the wide variety of gestures that dogs use when communicating with us. While we have known for a number of years that dogs are uniquely capable of understanding human communication signals, this is the first study to demonstrate that dogs use a diverse set of  referential signals when they communicate with us and that, just like our dogs, we understand what they are telling us. This is cool stuff.

So, the next time that your dog loses her Pony, pay attention to the type of referential gestures that she uses with you. In fact, take a moment now. Make a list of the different gestures that your dog uses to communicate his or her needs and desires to you. I am betting that there are a bunch. And, while you probably easily understand these and respond appropriately, remind yourself of the degree of complexity and specificity of the communication that is taking place in those moments when your dog loses his favorite toy and asks you for a bit of help.

ALLY REQUESTING A SECOND SUNDAY MORNING BAGEL

Cited Study: Worsley HK and O’Hara SJ. Cross-species referential signaling events in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), 2018; Animal Cognition,  10.1007/s10071-018-1181-3. 

The Smell of the Blue Ball

A favorite activity of the Case dogs is the “Find It” game. We play this out in the training building and begin by asking the dogs “What’s Hiding Today?”. We all visit the giant toy bin and select a toy for the day’s game. I show the toy to everyone, making sure that each dog gets a good long sniff. The dogs then run to the storage room where they wait as I hide the toy. The door is opened, dogs burst forth into the room and the competition begins! Everyone races around, air scenting, searching every nook and cranny of the room. The first dog to find the toy is the winner, grabbing the toy and running with it to home base to get their prize, a yummy treat.

Mike and I have played this game with our dogs for more than 30 years. While we have seen a range of talent and search strategies among them, all of our dogs adore this game, turn cartwheels to play it and always ask for “one more round” no matter how often we play. In addition to being convinced of the pleasure that dogs take in searching, it has always been obvious that our dogs not only search for the toy using primarily scent (olfaction), but also that they are able to discriminate between toys and will select only that toy that is chosen for the day’s game. For example, if another toy, one that was not chosen, has been left out somewhere in the building, it is summarily ignored, even if that toy has been hidden for the game on a previous day. It has always seemed that our dogs not only have been searching using their noses (not a big surprise of course), but that they are keenly aware of the smell of the blue ball versus that of the red tug toy.

CHIP AND ALICE AND THEIR FAVORITE BLUE BALLS

Picture a Blue Ball: The mental representations of objects is something that most of us take for granted. For example, think of your dog’s favorite toy; for my dogs, this is a blue Planet Dog ball. What mental representation do you conjure? I bet it is a visual representation, correct? (I see the blue ball in my inner brain right now). We may naturally assume that other animals represent their worlds similarly. However, for species such as dogs, whose strongest sense is olfaction, it is quite possible, expected really, that their mental representations of objects may be more strongly olfactory than visual – in other words, the smell of the blue ball.

A recent study examines just this question – Do dogs represent objects as odors?

The Study: Researchers at the Max Planck Institute in Germany used a study paradigm called the “violation of expectation” test. There are various ways to design this test, and in this particular set-up, dogs were asked to track the odor trail of a selected toy. At the end of the odor trail, they found either the expected toy or, big surprise, a different toy! The researchers predicted that if the dogs had an internal olfactory representation of  the selected toy, then finding a different toy at the end of its scent trail would be unexpected and discounted – meaning that they would hesitate or continue to search for the selected toy – just like my dogs do in the find it game. Conversely, if the dog simply grabbed the unexpected toy, this would suggest that although dogs are highly capable of following a scent trail (something that is already well supported and known), they do not have a strong internal scent representation of the scent of a specific object. Given what we know about the dog’s extraordinary sense of smell, the researchers hypothesized that dogs do indeed have very specific and distinct odor representations of objects and that the first scenario would predominate in their test.

The Dogs: They tested a group of 48 adult dogs of varying breeds and with different training backgrounds. Half of the dogs were trained either in search and rescue or police work. The other half were dogs living in family pets who had received no formal training. For each dog, two “high interest” toys of similar size were selected for use in the search tests. Each dog was tested in four randomized conditions in which one toy was dragged along the floor to leave a scent trail and then hidden in a cupboard. The routes and the hiding places were varied and dogs found either the expected toy (i.e. the toy that left the scent trail) or the unexpected toy in two trials each. Each  dog’s searching and sniffing behaviors, time to find the hidden toy, and response when finding the expected or unexpected toy were recorded.

Results: All of the dogs searched for and found the toy successfully within 2 minutes and the majority retrieved the toy after finding it. Sniffing behavior was used to search in the majority of searches (75 %), and most dogs used both air scenting and ground sniffing to find the hidden toy. Dogs found the hidden toy significantly faster when they sniffed versus the smaller number of trials that they attempted to find it visually, without sniffing. Here are other interesting results:

  • Surprise! On the first trial, there was no difference in the amount of time that it took to find the expected versus the unexpected toy, but significantly more dogs hesitated to retrieve the unexpected toy compared to the expected toy. This suggests that the dogs experienced a “violation of expectation”, supporting the hypothesis that they had an internal scent representation of the specific toy.
  • Working dogs vs. pet dogs: On the very first trial, the working dogs searched at higher speeds and were considerably faster at finding the hidden toy than the pet dogs. However, after the first trial (when it is assumed that the dogs “learned the game”), there was no difference in search speed or success between the trained working dogs and the pet dogs.
  • Not just the sniff: Dogs used a combination of both sniffing and visual searching in most trials. Interestingly, they tended to use vision immediately and when the toy was not obvious, such as when it was hidden in peripheral spots, they relied more heavily upon sniffing.

Take Away for Dog Folks: This study provides confirming evidence for something that many of us witness daily with our dogs – that they identify and discriminate among different objects using their sense of smell. But, there is also a bit more here. This study targets cognitive questions about internal representation and how human perceptions, which are primarily visual, may differ dramatically from a dog’s perceptions and representations. When Ally and Cooper compete to find the hidden blue ball, they may know what that blue ball looks like, but the internal image that they have of it is probably not an image at all…..but rather is a smell. The smell of the blue ball.

Can we, as a primate species, even know  what that is like? Probably not, but it sure is cool to attempt to understand it.

Happy Training!

Cited Study: Brauer J and Belger J. A ball is not a kong: Representation and search behavior in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) of different education. Journal of Comparative Psychology 2018; https://doi.org/10.1037/com0000115.

Becoming Dog Smart

This week’s blog is an excerpt from Linda Case’s newest Science Dog book,

Dog Smart: Evidence-based Training with The Science Dog.”

I grew up in an animal-loving family. As a young child, I had an auspicious start to pet ownership with Beany the Bird, a parakeet who I trained to fly from his cage to land on top of my head. As a pre-teen, Shelley the Sheltie joined our family, followed shortly thereafter by my horse, Hickory. (Clearly, alliteration and I share a long history). I trained Shelley in 4-H and competed with her in 4-H dog shows and AKC obedience trials. By my teen years, my mom was training and showing her own dogs, first a Belgian Tervuren named Tina and eventually a succession of Border Collies. We shared many years of traveling around the east coast and Midwest together to dog shows, training seminars and conferences. I have wonderful memories of those shared adventures and of our love of dogs. I would not change a thing.

Well, okay. I might change one thing.

I started training dogs in the early 1970’s. In those years, established dog training methods involved choke collars, corrections, and very generous use of the word “NO!.” Another popular aversive was that throat-clearing, grandpa-in-the-bathroom, “EEHHHH” sound.

REALLY? WHO WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR INVENTING THAT?

These methods were standard and accepted training practice, originally developed by military trainers during WWII.

Never look ’em in the eye: Here are two examples from those early training years. When I first began training Shelley in 4-H, the club leader strictly informed her budding group of young trainers that we must “never look our dogs in the eye.” Rather we were instructed to stare out into space, at a spot located somewhere above the dog’s head. I guess the premise was that my sweet and gentle Shetland Sheepdog would suddenly revert back to her wolf-like ancestor and launch for my throat should I make the error of making eye contact and thus challenge her status. A few years later, I attended a weekend seminar with my mom in which the presenter, a nationally recognized obedience competitor, instructed his students to yank on a long lead attached to their dog’s choke collar, immediately after yelling “COME!” The collar correction was intended to ensure that their dogs came running as quickly as possible. This was a time during which dogs were assumed to be in a constant battle for dominance with their owners, negative reinforcement and punishment reigned in dog training, and the use of food was viewed as bribery or even worse “cheating.” Luckily, just a few years later, around the mid-80’s, things began to change for the better for dogs – and for trainers.

Thank you, Karen Pryor: After finishing my undergraduate degree, getting married, and adding two Golden Retrievers to our family, Mike and I spent four pre-graduate school years moving around the East Coast as Mike completed his ROTC commitment to the Navy. (They had very generously paid for his engineering education at Cornell, so he owed them a bit of time in return). During our time in Massachusetts, I was lucky enough to become friends with a group of dog trainers who were as passionate as I was about dogs and training. We would meet regularly to train and walk our dogs together in area parks. One day, one of these friends excitedly showed up with a new training book in hand. This book was “Don’t Shoot the Dog” by Karen Pryor. We all read it. Devoured it, really.

As dog trainers, we never looked back.

The era of reward-based training methods had begun. Karen’s book was based on the science of behaviorism, encouraged positive reinforcement and strongly discouraged punishment. She promoted using food treats as a primary reinforcer and introduced the concept of using a marker word as a conditioned reinforcer. Karen’s seminal book and those that followed caused a paradigm shift in thinking and led to the development of an entirely new philosophy of dog training. Out went confrontational and correction-based methods that assumed dogs must be dominated to be trained and in came a gentler, kinder approach to training that also happened to be firmly grounded in learning theory and the behavioral sciences.

Animal rights, animal consciousness and social cognition: The changes of the 1980’s were followed by another remarkable development – this time in the academic world. After decades of being completely ignored in almost all fields of scientific study, the domestic dog was suddenly becoming a hot topic for scientists in a host of disciplines. It began with programs in canine and feline nutrition (upon which my own graduate studies centered), and was rapidly followed by studies of the evolutionary history and domestication of dogs, by new examinations of canine behavior that challenged previously accepted dog-as-wolf archetypes, and most recently, with studies of the dog’s unique talents in social cognition and emotional complexities. Although not focusing on dogs per se, the 1990’s also witnessed the serious philosophical consideration of animal consciousness, animal welfare and animal rights at universities around the world.

Collectively, these many areas of study expanded our understanding of and appreciation for the inner mental lives of non-human animals and directly challenged many long-held beliefs about how we should view and treat other animals, including dogs. While in graduate school and later, when teaching at the university, I read and studied the work of these scientists and philosophers. I brought their studies to my students for review, for group discussions, and as examples to practice their critical thinking skills. More personally, the evidence for complex animal minds and the arguments for changes in the ways that society has traditionally viewed animals had the effect of further modifying how I lived with, trained, and cared for my own dogs.

AutumnGold: In 1989, Mike and I built a dog training facility on the land adjacent to our home and opened AutumnGold Dog Training Center. I had just started teaching in the Companion Animal Science program in the University of Illinois. I taught undergraduates during the day and obedience classes at our school in the evenings. In its early years, when we were still competing in obedience trials, AutumnGold offered both competitive obedience classes and basic manners classes. Today we employ a group of talented trainers and instructors and teach classes that are primarily designed for pet dog owners. These include puppy and adult manners classes, a set of dog sports (for fun) classes, and a series that we call “LifeSkills” for teaching behaviors that promote harmony between owners and their dogs and help dogs to be well-behaved and comfortable in many situations.

STUDENTS REINFORCE DOWN/STAY AT AUTUMNGOLD

This new book,  “Dog Smart: Evidence-based Training with The Science Dog is a product of my years owning and developing classes for AutumnGold, teaching, researching, and writing about dogs during my work at the University of Illinois, and training, living with and loving a long succession of beloved dogs. It focuses on solid, scientifically acquired knowledge about dogs and attempts to dispel many of the prevailing myths that continue to persist, even among professed dog lovers. It is also a testimony to just how far we have come in our understanding of and empathy for the amazing dogs who are in our care and with whom we are privileged to share our lives with. I hope that you will enjoy reading this book as much as I have enjoyed these many years of training, learning, and writing. Happy Training!

 

Congratulations, “Dog Smart” Raffle Winners!

Congratulations to the winners of the “Dog Smart” raffle. Each of our five winners will receive a free copy of Linda Case’s newest book,

Dog Smart: Evidence-based Training with The Science Dog“.

  • Clarinda Arsenault, Oregon, WI, USA
  • Cathy Hughes, Amissville, VA, USA
  • Nancy McPhee, British Columbia, CA
  • Jo Sellers, Guildford, UK
  • Karen Warda, Asheboro, NC, USA

Gift copies have been ordered and should be received within a week to 10 days.  I hope that you enjoy the book. If you like it, please feel welcome to include a review on its Amazon Page! (Description and Table of Contents are below).

Book Description: Anyone who lives with and loves dogs knows that they are smart. Really smart. They understand our body language and emotions, can be trained to perform important services, are devoted companions, and enjoy walks, tricks, dog sports or just hangin’ out on the couch. So, how “Dog Smart” are you? What do you know or wish to know about the dog’s history, perceptions, understanding of humans, and responses to different training methods? These topics and more come under the scrutiny of the Science Dog in Linda Case’s latest myth-busting book. Learn to separate fact from fiction about the relationship between dogs and wolves, whether dominance should be a factor in dog training, what forms of reinforcement work best, and how to apply evidence-based training methods. “Dog Smart” will not only help you to be a better trainer, but will give you the tools for communicating the most current information about dogs to others – including the popular Science Dog character, neighbor Joe (who happens to know a lot about dogs).

About the Author: Linda Case is a well-known author and dog trainer who speaks world-wide about evidence-based dog training, behavior and nutrition. She taught at the University of Illinois Department of Animal Sciences and College of Veterinary Medicine for 20 years and owns AutumnGold Dog Training Center in Illinois. She writes the popular blog, The Science Dog (https://thesciencedog.wordpress.com/).

  

Joe May Be Right (For Once)

Neighbor Joe (who happens to know a lot about dogs) popped by for a visit recently. He came over to tell me that he has a new dog.

“Yup”, Joe says, “Adopted him from our local shelter”. (Good Boy, Joe!) “He’s supposed to be part Australian Shepherd and part Catahoula Leopard Dog.” (Yes, because we have so many intact Catahoula Leopard Dogs running loose and breeding indiscriminately in Central Illinois).

Joe continues, “But, you know, I think there also might be some wolf in there, or maybe some coyote or fox or something.”

“Perhaps New Guinea Singing Dog?” I suggest helpfully.

“Yeah, could be”. Joe is thoughtful. “Reason I think this is that I am pretty sure this dog, who I have named Cujo (Of course you did), is really good at smelling fear in people.

(Say what?)

Joe explains. “Whenever Cujo meets someone who says that he is afraid of dogs, Cujo seems to know it. He starts woofing really loudly at the person and if I let him run up to the person (Bad Joe),  Cujo gets even more upset and barks louder and louder”.

I try to intervene. “Well, Joe, you know there could be a number of reasons that Cujo barks at folks who are not keen on having a large and untrained dog running up to them. Dogs are masters at paying attention to body language in humans, so Cujo may be reacting to these signals when a person is nervous or afraid”.

Joe is having none of it (he does know a lot about dogs, after all). “Nope”, he says. “This dog smells fear. I bet that wolf or coyote or what did you call it, that New Something Yodeling Dog, is the reason that Cujo is so good at this. Wild animals can smell fear in us really well, you know”.

I started to give my usual skeptic’s response of “Not sure there is evidence of that, Joe“, when I realize that indeed, there IS a new paper, sitting on my desk, that examines exactly this question: “Can dogs smell fear?”

I decided that I needed to get back to Joe on this one.

Some Background: Our understanding of the dog’s social cognition and ability to understand human communication signals continues to expand. We have research showing that dogs recognize a wide range of emotions displayed in human facial expressions, are highly sensitive to the tone and pitch of our voices, and are capable of discerning the emotional import of very subtle body  cues. Oddly enough, even though the dog’s extraordinary sense of smell has been known for many years, only a few studies have examined the role that odors play in the dog’s ability to detect emotional states in others. Neuroscientist Gregory Berns’ work with dogs in MRIs showed that the portion of the dog’s brain that is associated with pleasure  is activated by the mere smell of his or her owner. However, this does not tell us if these dogs were reacting to their owners’ emotions. A study conducted in 2011 reported that the smell of a veterinarian’s sweat increased the arousal level in most dogs. Later work by the same group of researchers found that the smell of a fearful human caused increased heart rate in dogs.

This newest study, the one on my desk, was published by Biagio D’Aniello and his research team at the University of Naples in Italy. It is the first to examine the ability of dogs to detect and respond to the emotional signals of human airborne odors in the absence of other visual or auditory cues.

The Question: The authors wondered if dogs who are with their owners would change their social behavior in response to the smell of a human who was experiencing intense emotion – either fear or happiness. Because other research had shown that dogs will seek out their owners as a secure base when anxious, they also wondered if dogs who “smell fear” would become stressed and look to their owners for support.

The Study:  A group of eight human “sweat donors” (yes, that really is a thing) were asked to view one of two videos, one that induced fear or one that induced happiness. As they watched, the sweat from their axillae (arm pits) was collected using sterile absorbent compresses. The donors also completed a standardized anxiety profile to ensure that the targeted emotion had been achieved (relaxed/happy versus anxious/fearful). Sweat samples were stored in dry ice and then pooled to provide composite “fear sweat” and “happiness sweat” samples for use in the study with dogs. A group of 40 adult pet dogs (Labrador and Golden Retrievers) and their owners participated in the test and were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) Happiness, (2) Fear, or (3) Control (no scent). During the pre-test period, a heart rate monitor was attached to the dog and the dog was given ample time to explore and acclimate to the testing room. At the start of the test, an experimenter entered the room and placed an apparatus containing an open vial containing the sweat pads in the middle of the room. The vial was constructed to allow the dog to investigate by sniffing, but disallowed the dog to directly touch or contaminate the vial’s contents. During the test period, the dog was allowed to move freely about the room while the owner and one of the researchers (who was unfamiliar to the dog) sat quietly in chairs, without interacting with the dog. Neither the dog’s owner nor the experimenter who was acting as the stranger knew which condition the dog was assigned to. For a five-minute period, the dog’s heart rate, body language, movements toward/away from their owner and the stranger, and stress-related behaviors were videotaped. The researchers used a statistical procedure called “linear discriminate analysis” to discover whether dogs showed a consistent set of behaviors in reaction to the three conditions (happy sweat, fearful sweat, or control).

Results: Several interesting outcomes were reported:

  • Happy Sweat: When exposed to “happy” sweat, dogs demonstrated fewer and shorter owner-directed interactions and more frequent stranger-directed interactions compared with when they were exposed to “fear” sweat. These results suggest that the dogs in this condition felt relaxed enough to greet a stranger and did not seek reassurance from their owner.
  • Fear Sweat: Conversely, dogs who were exposed to the “fear” sweat demonstrated more frequent stress-related behaviors that lasted for longer durations, in some cases for the entire trial period. Dogs in this condition also showed increased owner-directed behaviors compared with stranger-directed behaviors, suggesting that they were seeking support from the owners while feeling stressed.
  • Heart Rates: Dogs in the “fear” condition had consistently higher heart rates during the testing period when compared with dogs in either the happy condition or the control condition. Increased heart rate is an established measure of sympathetic nervous system stimulation that signifies emotional arousal and was consistent with behavioral signs of stress in the dogs.

Conclusions: The authors concluded that human chemosignals (sweat smells) significantly influenced both the physiological status (heart rate) and behavior (primarily stress) of dogs. Their analysis indicated that the two emotions (happiness vs. fear) that were conveyed by the sweat samples each induced a set of consistently distinct behaviors in the dogs. While dogs are masters at picking up on our body cues and vocal signals, and often  react accordingly, the unique factor in this study was that the transfer of the emotional content of olfactory (scent)  signals occurred in the complete absence of visual (body language) or acoustic (voice) cues.

Take Away for Dog Folks:  The implications of these results for trainers are pretty clear. Not only should we be paying attention to the subtle body cues, facial expressions and vocal cues that our dogs perceive, we  perhaps should also be thinking about, um, how we (and others) smell. A dog who is reacting to an unfamiliar person may not only be paying attention to that individual’s body language, but also to cues that are (in most cases, we hope) completely imperceptible to us. So, if you are going out to train your dog after bingeing on watching Scream sequels, you may be best served to jump into the shower beforehand. Similarly, if you just watched Air Bud or Up, popping out for a bit of dog training after the movie is probably just fine and dandy. And, if you have a dog who, like Joe’s Cujo, seems to be reacting to the smell of fear in someone, well, hard as it is to admit; Joe may be right on this one. Your dog may actually be smelling fear.

Cited Study: D’Aniello B, Semin GR, Alterisio A, Aria M, Scandurra A. Interspecies transmission of emotional information via chemosignals: From humans to dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), Animal Cognition 2017; DOI 10.1007/s10071-017-1139.

Read more about Neighbor Joe’s adventures in Linda Case’s newest book, “Dog Smart: Evidence-based Training with The Science Dog“!

Does this Smell Funny to You?

Are dogs self-aware? Do they recognize themselves as individuals, distinct from others?Other Animals Have It: Although rather tricky topics of study, animal self-recognition, self-awareness  and consciousness have been examined by scientists for decades. Animal consciousness is neither a new idea, nor is it a radical way of thinking. Lucky for us, we no longer live in the age of Descartes when animals other than those of the human variety were viewed as non-thinking automatons who lacked both consciousness and the ability to feel emotions. (Though, personally I can think of a few humans who may fit that description).

Evidence for at least a rudimentary sense of self-awareness is available in a wide range of non-human animal species. A leading theory of the evolutionary benefits of this trait is that the ability to distinguish self from other helps social animals (including humans) to recognize their place within their social group, to cooperate successfully with others, and to identify individuals who are outside of their  group. Dogs, also members  of a highly social species, are now known to have much more complex inner lives than we once gave them credit for. They readily follow the gaze of another dog or person, understand pointing, attend to the emotional states of others, and demonstrate rudimentary aspects of perspective taking (knowing what someone else can see or know). Having a sense of self as distinct from others is an additional cognitive talent that dogs may possess given their highly social nature and the functional benefits of self-recognition and self-awareness.

Mirror, Mirror: The classic test used to study self-recognition has been the mirror self-recognition (MSR) test. Using this method, the subject animal examines her image in a mirror after an area of her body has been surreptitiously marked with a spot of dye. The animal’s reaction to this alteration is observed and if  the subject uses the mirror to examine the spot on her body, this attention is interpreted as evidence for recognizing the image in the mirror as oneself rather than simply an image of a like-looking animal with a funny spot on her head.  Species that regularly pass the MSR test include the great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans), dolphins, a single elephant, and even some bird species, such as the Magpie. Oh yeah, and most humans pass, as long as they are older than 2-years of age.

MAGPIES PASS IT

What about Dogs? Dogs however, have routinely failed this test. Dog folks are now certainly muttering, “Well of course, dogs do not use vision as their primary special sense – they use olfaction – their noses“. This difference is significant, since dogs believe what their nose tells them first and foremost, compared with primate species such as ourselves, who perceive the world primarily through vision. Additionally, because of anatomical and social differences, dogs do not regularly self-groom in the same manner that primates do, so are not as apt to care about an unexpected spot that suddenly shows up on the top of their head. For those who study dogs, clearly, another type of test was needed.

Enter Alexandra Horowitz and her team of dog pee researchers at Barnard College in New York City.

The Significance of Pee: Dogs regularly investigate the urine scent of other dogs. There is evidence that they spend more time investigating the urine markings of other dogs and less time sniffing their own urine, which suggests that dogs distinguish their own scent from that of others. Using this knowledge, Horowitz devised a new type of mirror test for dogs – this one based upon their primary sense – smell. She reasoned that just as a chimpanzee notices the sudden change in appearance when a spot of dye shows up on her head, if dogs recognize their own scent, then they too should be surprised to find an unexpected change in that smell and attend to it (sniff it) for a longer period of time. She devised a pair of controlled experiments that asked, using their sense of smell –  “Do dogs recognize themselves?”

The Study First, the team of researchers collected the pee of a group of volunteer dogs (well, okay, the owners volunteered their dogs’ pee. We are not really sure how the dogs felt about that part). The author also collected urine from her own dog, who would serve as the “unfamiliar dog” sample. Each dog was tested individually with a set of three scent canisters for three separate trials and comparisons. One canister contained water only (decoy sample),  one contained the subject dog’s urine (self), and the third contained either (1) the subject dog’s adulterated urine (marker self), (2) the urine of an unfamiliar dog (other), or (3) the scent of the adulteration substance alone (marker). Two experiments were conducted, with the only difference being the way in which the subject dog’s urine was altered. In Exp. 1, a tissue sample of dog spleen was added to the urine. In Exp. 2, a small amount of anise essential oil was added.

Results: Similar to mirror tests, the researchers expected dogs to pay more attention to a scent of themselves that was unexpectedly altered compared with their reaction to their unaltered urine scent. Here is what they found:

  1. Who’s this guy? As earlier research has shown, dogs spent more time investigating the urine of an unfamiliar dog compared with the time that they spent sniffing their own urine. (“Hmm…. Smells like I was here earlier……whoa…..hello….who is this new dude who peed here too?)
  2. Hey Sally! Interestingly, dogs did not spend more time investigating the urine of a known dog (their housemate) compared with time spent smelling their own urine. (Looks like Sally was visiting at the same time I was. Funny, I don’t remember seeing her here….”)
  3. Does this smell funny to you? Last, dogs spend significantly more time investigating the canisters that contained their altered urine scent compared with how long they investigated their unadulterated urine. This difference occurred with both types of marker substance – spleen tissue and anise oil. Dogs also returned to the canisters more often when their urine was compared with their adulterated urine.  (“Wowza. This is weird. Did I eat something odd last night? Maybe I am getting a cold? What the heck IS that smell on me???”)

The authors conclude that these results support the use of their newly designed (and quite ingenious, if I may add) “smell test” as species-relevant analog to the MSR test. The fact that the dogs spent more time investigating their own urine when it had been unexpectedly changed supports some level of recognition of their own odor and by extension, perhaps a rudimentary “sense of self”. Similarly, dogs were highly interested in the scent of unfamiliar dogs (Hey! Who’s this guy??) but not to the odor of their housemate.

Yeah, I have an opinion on this one. First though, I have to say that this is one of the most creative and clever studies that I have read in some time. (Not to mention it being ripe for witticisms and puns……).

The results of this study suggest that dogs may possess one of the cognitive traits, self-recognition, that humans have historically co-opted for our species and our species alone. In past, we have worked diligently to make clear cognitive distinctions between human animals (us) and non-human animals (everyone else). A wide range of traits have been used for this purpose, many of which have fallen like a house of cards as they are discovered to exist in other animals. Examples include the expression of emotions, perspective taking, tool use and tool making, existence of culture, ability to reason, and the demonstration of altruism. We also know that humans do not hold exclusive rights to the expression of self-awareness and consciousness and are not the only species capable of complex thought, internal representations of the world, planning, intention and deception. Yeah, we do have language and we are capable of “meta-thinking” (thinking about thinking), but many types of cognition and complex thought have been demonstrated to exist in some form in a host of other animals, including dogs. So what is the big deal? Is there really anything to argue about here? Well, yeah, as a dog trainer (a clicker trainer, I must emphasize), I think that there is an important point to be made.

It is this. Behaviorism alone can no longer be enough. The science of behaviorism and its application in dog training no longer can adequately capture and address all that is dog. Sorry to all of you purists out there, but there it is. (And remember, I am a clicker trainer).

Here is my argument: Although dogs respond well to the laws of behaviorism (just as humans do), the fact that we successfully use operant and classical conditioning to train dogs should not be confused for evidence that dogs are lacking in a host of mental skills that fall higher on the cognitive complexity scale. Behaviorism and social cognition are not mutually exclusive sciences (though to listen to some trainers and some scientists, you would think they were disciplines existing on different planets).

The reason that I bring up this particular issue in this particular essay is because self-recognition and self-awareness seem to be a current “hot spot” in this debate between behaviorism and cognitive science. Pure behaviorism has its benefits – mainly it works great when applied as a training technique. However, given the boatloads of research published by cognitive scientists that demonstrate the social complexity of the domestic dog (and now – self-recognition!), we cannot discount as trainers evidence showing that dogs pay attention to the social cues of humans and of other dogs, that they possess some level of perspective taking, that they regularly learn through observation of others, that they can recognize one another and understand intent by the sound of their barks, and that they can recognize one another and themselves through smell. It is time for trainers to embrace both of these important and enlightening bodies of science. We should support and use behaviorism because it provides simple and elegant rules for training that work, and we must also encourage studies of canine social cognition because they continue to teach us more about the internal lives, experiences and perceptions of our canine best friends.

Off of soap box. Back to pee jokes.

Cited Study: Horowitz, A. Smelling themselves: Dogs investigate their own odours longer when modified in an “olfactory mirror” test. Behavioural Processes, 2017; 143:17-24.

Read more about dog cognition, behavior and training in Linda Case’s new book, “Dog Smart: Evidence-based Training with The Science Dog” (2018)